One of the first ATAs after World War II was the Bermuda Agreement, signed in 1946 by Britain and the United States. The features of this agreement have become models for the thousands of such agreements that were to follow, although in recent decades some of the traditional clauses of these agreements have been modified (or “liberalized”) in accordance with the “open skies” policy of some governments, particularly the United States.  Over the past thirty years, the European Union has created the world`s largest and most successful example of regional market integration and air transport liberalisation. The EU`s internal aviation market has been developed by dramatic changes in the economic and regulatory landscape of air transport in Europe, to the benefit of consumers and businesses. The agreement will benefit all stakeholders by improving connectivity through a fair and transparent competitive environment and creating a solid foundation for a long-term relationship in the aviation sector. In principle, all ATAs should be registered by the International Civil Aviation Organization at DAGMAR from the ICAO Database of Air Agreements and Agreements, but this source is not entirely exhaustive. On 17 August 2009, the EU initialled a horizontal aviation agreement with Indonesia. This agreement allows any EU airline to operate flights between Indonesia and any EU Member State in which it is established and where there is a bilateral agreement with Indonesia and where traffic rights are available. It does not replace bilateral agreements, but adapts them to bring them into line with EU law. This is an important step in the traditional introduction of air transport on the basis of nationality restrictions and complements the EU`s internal aviation market externally.
The European Commission negotiated the agreement on behalf of European Member States as part of its Aviation Strategy for Europe – a flagship initiative to give new impetus to European aviation and create business opportunities. Negotiations were successfully concluded on 5 February 2019. An ambitious agreement was signed with Canada in 2009. It creates a truly open airspace between the EU and Canada and creates vast opportunities for mutual openness in investment. A platform for close coordination of legislation on all aspects of aviation policy will also be set up. In March 2011, a comprehensive air services agreement was concluded with Brazil, but it is currently being renegotiated. Negotiations are ongoing with a number of other important global partners. The EU and Indonesia agree on a horizontal agreement in the field of air services [IP/09/1236, 17.08.2009] The agreement will improve the rules and standards for flights between Qatar and the EU and establish a new global scale by committing to strong and fair competition mechanisms and by granting rules that are not normally covered by bilateral air transport agreements, such as social or environmental issues.
The EU`s external aviation policy also aims to overcome persistent fragmentation and limited market access for the benefit of EU industry and citizens. EU Member States can continue to negotiate bilateral air services agreements until the Council authorises the European Commission to negotiate a comprehensive EU agreement. Comprehensive EU aviation agreements replace the bilateral agreements of all EU Member States with a given third country. The third pillar of the EU`s external aviation policy is the opening of targeted negotiations with a view to reaching global agreements in the main regions of the world, with a view to market access and enhancing the prospects for fair competition in the most dynamic world markets, while contributing to the reform of international civil aviation and the promotion of European rules and European industry. This agreement is part of the EU`s concerted efforts to ensure open and fair competition and high standards for global air transport, in line with the ambitious external agenda of the Aviation Strategy for Europe. . . .