The bitstream access service allows the incumbent operator to retain control over the rate of provision of high-speed access services and the geographical regions where those services are set up. From a regulatory point of view, these services are therefore considered to be complementary to other forms of unbundled access, but not as a substitute for these services. Access to bit-electric electricity is now seen as a key instrument for opening up competition in the broadband market. It allows competitors to offer their own products to consumers, even if they do not operate the local loop (the last mile). Access to Bitstrom allows the new entrant to use the high-speed modems and other equipment provided by the incumbent operator, avoiding maintenance and investment in the local loop. This affects the profitability of the service and limits the nature of the modems that the new entrant`s customer can buy or rent. The main elements that define bitstrom access are the following: Bitstrom access is therefore a wholesale product composed of the access services (usually ADSL) and “backhaul” of the backbone (ATM) network (ATM, IP-Backbone). The incumbent may also provide its competitors with transmission services via its asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) or IP network, in order to transfer its competitors` traffic from the Digital Subscriber Access Multiplexer (DSLAM) to a higher level in the network hierarchy, where new entrants might already have a point of presence (e.g. B a transit switching point). Bitstrom transfer points can therefore be made at different levels: unlike unbundled access, the provision of bit-electric access services is not required by UNION law, but where an incumbent operator provides Bitstrom-DSL services to its own services, subsidiaries or third parties, it must also, under Community legislation, make those forms of access available to others under transparent and non-discriminatory conditions (Directive 98/10/EC Article 16). Bit-current access refers to the situation in which a fixed operator installs a high-speed access connection to the customer`s premises (e.g.
B by installing ADSL devices on the local access network) and then makes this connection available to third parties so that they can offer high-speed services to customers. This type of access does not include third-party access to the copper pair in the local loop. . . . .